Kidney - Irreplaceable organ
Each person usually has 2 kidneys located posteriorly peritoneally and on either side of the spine. The size of a healthy kidney is 9-12 cm in an adult and varies depending on the physique of the individual. The smallest functional and anatomical unit of the kidney is the nephron. Each kidney has about 1.3 million nephrons.
What are the main functions of kidneys?
The main functions of the kidneys are:
- The regulator, in which the kidneys maintain a stable composition and volume of body fluids
- Excretory, in which the kidneys excrete toxic metabolic products and exogenous toxic substances (eg drugs)
- The secretory / productive, in which the kidneys produce enzymes and hormones important for both renal function and the function of other organs
What happens when the kidneys do not function normally?
When the kidneys are no longer able to perform their functions properly, the functional performance of the whole human body is affected. If only the "filter" of the kidney is defective, too much protein will be excreted in the urine. In addition, this leads to swelling (water collection) in the legs or lungs while removing very few toxins. Once accumulated, these toxins can damage other organs, such as the heart, gastrointestinal tract, hematopoietic system, etc. Most patients experience a significant increase in blood pressure due to hormonal dysfunction. At an advanced stage of the disease, calcification of the bones occurs, cardiac valves and versels calsification, bone mineral disease and the dysfunction of the production of blood cells begins, which leads to anemia.